Section 6F.63 Channelizing Devices
01 Designs of various channelizing devices shall be as shown in Figure 6F–7. All channelizing devices shall be crashworthy.
02 The function of channelizing devices is to warn road users of conditions created by work activities in or near the roadway and to guide road users. Channelizing devices include cones, tubular markers, vertical panels, drums, barricades, and longitudinal channelizing devices.
03 Channelizing devices provide for smooth and gradual vehicular traffic flow from one lane to another, onto a bypass or detour, or into a narrower traveled way. They are also used to channelize vehicular traffic away from the work space, pavement drop-offs, pedestrian or shared-use paths, or opposing directions of vehicular traffic.
04 Devices used to channelize pedestrians shall be detectable to users of long canes and visible to persons having low vision.
05 Where channelizing devices are used to channelize pedestrians, there shall be continuous
detectable bottom and top surfaces to be detectable to users of long canes. The bottom of the bottom
surface shall be no higher than 2 inches above the ground. The top of the top surface shall be no lower than 32 inches above the ground.
06 A gap not exceeding 2 inches between the bottom rail and the ground surface may be used to
07 Where multiple channelizing devices are aligned to form a continuous pedestrian channelizer, connection points should be smooth to optimize long-cane and hand trailing.
08 The spacing between cones, tubular markers, vertical panels, drums, and barricades should not exceed a distance in feet equal to 1.0 times the speed limit in mph when used for taper channelization, and a distance in feet equal to 2.0 times the speed limit in mph when used for tangent channelization.
09 When channelizing devices have the potential of leading vehicular traffic out of the intended vehicular traffic space as shown in Figure 6H-39, the channelizing devices should be extended a distance in feet of 2.0 times the speed limit in mph beyond the downstream end of the transition area.
10 Warning lights (see Section 6F.83) may be added to channelizing devices in areas with frequent fog, snow, or severe roadway curvature, or where visual distractions are present.
11 Warning lights shall flash when placed on channelizing devices used alone or in a cluster to warn of a
condition. Except for the sequential flashing warning lights discussed in Paragraphs 12 and 13, warning
lights placed on channelizing devices used in a series to channelize road users shall be steady-burn.
12 A series of sequential flashing warning lights may be placed on channelizing devices that form a merging taper in order to increase driver detection and recognition of the merging taper.
13 When used, the successive flashing of the sequential warning lights shall occur from the upstream end of the merging taper to the downstream end of the merging taper in order to identify the desired vehicle path. Each warning light in the sequence shall be flashed at a rate of not less than 55 nor more than 75 times per minute.
14 The retroreflective material used on channelizing devices shall have a smooth, sealed outer surface that will display a similar color day or night.
15 The name and telephone number of the highway agency, contractor, or supplier may be displayed on the nonretroreflective surface of all types of channelizing devices.
16 The letters and numbers of the name and telephone number shall be non-retroreflective and not over
2 inches in height.
17 Particular attention should be given to maintaining the channelizing devices to keep them clean, visible, and properly positioned at all times.
18 Devices that are damaged or have lost a significant amount of their retroreflectivity and effectiveness
shall be replaced.
Section 6F.64 Cones
01 Cones (see Figure 6F-7) shall be predominantly orange and shall be made of a material that can be
struck without causing damage to the impacting vehicle. For daytime and low-speed roadways, cones shall be not less than 18 inches in height. When cones are used on freeways and other high-speed highways or at night on all highways, or when more conspicuous guidance is needed, cones shall be a minimum of 28 inches in height.
02 For nighttime use, cones shall be retroreflectorized or equipped with lighting devices for maximum
visibility. Retroreflectorization of cones that are 28 to 36 inches in height shall be provided by a 6-inch wide white band located 3 to 4 inches from the top of the cone and an additional 4-inch wide white band located approximately 2 inches below the 6-inch band.
03 Retroreflectorization of cones that are more than 36 inches in height shall be provided by horizontal,
circumferential, alternating orange and white retroreflective stripes that are 4 to 6 inches wide. Each
cone shall have a minimum of two orange and two white stripes with the top stripe being orange. Any
non-retroreflective spaces between the orange and white stripes shall not exceed 3 inches in width.
04 Traffic cones may be used to channelize road users, divide opposing vehicular traffic lanes, divide lanes when two or more lanes are kept open in the same direction, and delineate short duration maintenance and utility work.
05 Steps should be taken to minimize the possibility of cones being blown over or displaced by wind or moving vehicular traffic.
06 Cones may be doubled up to increase their weight.
07 Some cones are constructed with bases that can be filled with ballast. Others have specially weighted bases, or weight such as sandbag rings that can be dropped over the cones and onto the base to provide added stability.
08 Ballast should be kept to the minimum amount needed.
Section 6F.65 Tubular Markers
01 Tubular markers (see Figure 6F-7) shall be predominantly orange and shall be not less than 18 inches
high and 2 inches wide facing road users. They shall be made of a material that can be struck without
causing damage to the impacting vehicle.
02 Tubular markers shall be a minimum of 28 inches in height when they are used on freeways and other
high-speed highways, on all highways during nighttime, or whenever more conspicuous guidance is needed.
03 For nighttime use, tubular markers shall be retroreflectorized. Retroreflectorization of tubular
markers that have a height of less than 42 inches shall be provided by two 3-inch wide white bands placed a maximum of 2 inches from the top with a maximum of 6 inches between the bands. Retroreflectorization
of tubular markers that have a height of 42 inches or more shall be provided by four 4- to 6-inch wide
alternating orange and white stripes with the top stripe being orange.
04 Tubular markers have less visible area than other devices and should be used only where space restrictions do not allow for the use of other more visible devices.
05 Tubular markers should be stabilized by affixing them to the pavement, by using weighted bases, or weights such as sandbag rings that can be dropped over the tubular markers and onto the base to provide added stability.
Ballast should be kept to the minimum amount needed.
06 Tubular markers may be used effectively to divide opposing lanes of road users, divide vehicular traffic lanes when two or more lanes of moving vehicular traffic are kept open in the same direction, and to delineate the edge of a pavement drop off where space limitations do not allow the use of larger devices.
07 A tubular marker shall be attached to the pavement to display the minimum 2-inch width to the
approaching road users.
Section 6F.66 Vertical Panels
01 Vertical panels (see Figure 6F-7) shall have retroreflective striped material that is 8 to 12 inches in
width and at least 24 inches in height. They shall have alternating diagonal orange and white retroreflective stripes sloping downward at an angle of 45 degrees in the direction vehicular traffic is to pass.
02 Where the height of the retroreflective material on the vertical panel is 36 inches or more, a stripe width of 6 inches shall be used.
03 Where the height of the retroreflective material on the vertical panel is less than 36 inches, a stripe width of 4 inches may be used.
04 Where space is limited, vertical panels may be used to channelize vehicular traffic, divide opposing lanes, or replace barricades.
Section 6F.67 Drums
01 Drums (see Figure 6F-7) used for road user warning or channelization shall be constructed of
lightweight, deformable materials. They shall be a minimum of 36 inches in height and have at least an
18-inch minimum width regardless of orientation. Metal drums shall not be used. The markings on drums
shall be horizontal, circumferential, alternating orange and white retroreflective stripes 4 to 6 inches wide.
Each drum shall have a minimum of two orange and two white stripes with the top stripe being orange.
Any non-retroreflectorized spaces between the horizontal orange and white stripes shall not exceed 3 inches wide. Drums shall have closed tops that will not allow collection of construction debris or other debris.
02 Drums are highly visible, have good target value, give the appearance of being formidable obstacles and, therefore, command the respect of road users. They are portable enough to be shifted from place to place within
a TTC zone in order to accommodate changing conditions, but are generally used in situations where they will remain in place for a prolonged period of time.
03 Although drums are most commonly used to channelize or delineate road user flow, they may also be used alone or in groups to mark specific locations.
04 Drums should not be weighted with sand, water, or any material to the extent that would make them
hazardous to road users or workers when struck. Drums used in regions susceptible to freezing should have drain holes in the bottom so that water will not accumulate and freeze causing a hazard if struck by a road user.
05 Ballast shall not be placed on the top of a drum.
Section 6F.68 Type 1, 2, or 3 Barricades
01 A barricade is a portable or fixed device having from one to three rails with appropriate markings and is used to control road users by closing, restricting, or delineating all or a portion of the right-of-way.
02 As shown in Figure 6F-7, barricades are classified as Type 1, Type 2, or Type 3.
03 Stripes on barricade rails shall be alternating orange and white retroreflective stripes sloping
downward at an angle of 45 degrees in the direction road users are to pass. Except as provided in
Paragraph 4, the stripes shall be 6 inches wide.
04 When rail lengths are less than 36 inches, 4-inch wide stripes may be used.
05 The minimum length for Type 1 and Type 2 Barricades shall be 24 inches, and the minimum length for
Type 3 Barricades shall be 48 inches. Each barricade rail shall be 8 to 12 inches wide. Barricades used
on freeways, expressways, and other high-speed roadways shall have a minimum of 270 square inches of retroreflective area facing road users.
06 Where barricades extend entirely across a roadway, the stripes should slope downward in the direction toward which road users must turn.
07 Where both right and left turns are provided, the barricade stripes should slope downward in both directions from the center of the barricade or barricades.
08 Where no turns are intended, the stripes should be positioned to slope downward toward the center of the barricade or barricades.
09 Barricade rails should be supported in a manner that will allow them to be seen by the road user, and in a manner that provides a stable support that is not easily blown over or displaced.
10 The width of the existing pedestrian facility should be provided for the temporary facility if practical. Traffic control devices and other construction materials and features should not intrude into the usable width of the sidewalk, temporary pathway, or other pedestrian facility. When it is not possible to maintain a minimum width of 60 inches throughout the entire length of the pedestrian pathway, a 60 x 60-inch passing space should be provided at least every 200 feet to allow individuals in wheelchairs to pass.
11 Barricade rail supports should not project into pedestrian circulation routes more than 4 inches from
the support between 27 and 80 inches from the surface as described in Section 4.4.1 of the “Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG)” (see Section 1A.11).
12 For Type 1 Barricades, the support may include other unstriped horizontal rails necessary to provide stability.
13 On high-speed expressways or in other situations where barricades may be susceptible to overturning in the wind, ballasting should be used.
14 Sandbags may be placed on the lower parts of the frame or the stays of barricades to provide the
15 Type 1 or Type 2 Barricades are intended for use in situations where road user flow is maintained through the TTC zone.
16 Barricades may be used alone or in groups to mark a specific condition or they may be used in a series for channelizing road users.
17 Type 1 Barricades may be used on conventional roads or urban streets.
18 Type 2 or Type 3 Barricades should be used on freeways and expressways or other high-speed roadways.
Type 3 Barricades should be used to close or partially close a road.
19 Type 3 Barricades used at a road closure may be placed completely across a roadway or from curb to curb.
20 Where provision is made for access of authorized equipment and vehicles, the responsibility for Type 3 Barricades should be assigned to a person who will provide proper closure at the end of each work day.
21 When a highway is legally closed but access must still be allowed for local road users, barricades usually are not extended completely across the roadway.
22 A sign shall be installed with the appropriate legend concerning permissible use by local road users
(see Section 6F.09). Adequate visibility of the barricades from both directions shall be provided.
23 Signs may be installed on barricades (see Section 6F.03).
Steven Cole (Economics, MBA – University of West Florida , Business & Innovation – Stanford University) 25 years of experience in the reflective safety business. Specializing in vehicle accident and rear end collision reduction through increased visibility.